We evaluated the effects of a methanol extract from the leaves of the plant Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) on the metabolism and action of estradiol and estrone. Treatment of female CD-1 mice with 2% rosemary in AIN-76A diet for 3 weeks increased the liver microsomal 2-hydroxylation of estradiol and estrone by approximately 150%, increased their 6-hydroxylation by approximately 30% and inhibited the 16alpha-hydroxylation of estradiol by approximately 50%. Treatment of female CD-1 mice with 2% rosemary diet for 3 weeks also stimulated the liver microsomal glucuronidation of estradiol and estrone by 54-67% and 37-56%, respectively. In additional studies, feeding 2% rosemary diet to ovariectomized CD-1 mice for 3 weeks inhibited the uterotropic action of estradiol and estrone by 35-50% compared with animals fed a control diet. The results of this study showed that feeding female mice a 2% rosemary diet increased the liver microsomal oxidation and glucuronidation of estradiol and estrone and inhibited their uterotropic action.