Human atopic asthma is a complex heritable inflammatory disorder of the airways associated with clinical signs of allergic inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. Recent studies demonstrate that the degree of airway responsiveness is strongly associated with interleukin (IL)-9 expression in murine lung. To investigate the contribution of IL-9 to airway hyperresponsiveness, and to explore directly its relationship to airway inflammation, we studied transgenic mice overexpressing IL-9. In this report we show that IL-9 transgenic mice (FVB/N-TG5), in comparison with FVB/NJ mice, display significantly enhanced eosinophilic airway inflammation, elevated serum total immunoglobulin E, and airway hyperresponsiveness following lung challenge with a natural antigen (Aspergillus fumigatus). These data support a central role for IL-9 in the complex pathogenesis of allergic inflammation.