Tissue distribution of erythropoietin and erythropoietin receptor in the developing human fetus

Early Hum Dev. 1998 Oct;52(3):235-49. doi: 10.1016/s0378-3782(98)00030-9.


Objective: Erythropoietin receptors (Epo-R) have been demonstrated on several nonhematopoietic cell types in animal models and in cell culture. Our objective was to determine the tissue distribution and cellular specificity of erythropoietin (Epo) and its receptor in the developing human fetus.

Study design: The expression of Epo and Epo-R mRNA was ascertained by RT-PCR for organs ranging in maturity from 5 to 24 weeks postconception. The cellular location of protein immunoreactivity was then determined using specific antiEpo and antiEpo-R antibodies. Antibody specificity was established by Western analysis.

Results: mRNA for Epo and Epo-R was found in all organs in the first two trimesters. Immunolocalization of Epo was limited to the liver parenchymal cells, kidney interstitial cells and proximal tubules, neural retina of the eye, and adrenal cortex. As development progressed, immunoreactivity in the kidney became more prominent. In contrast, immunoreactivity for Epo-R was widespread throughout the body, in cell types including endothelial cells, myocardiocytes, macrophages, retinal cells, cells of the adrenal cortex and medulla, as well as in small bowel, spleen, liver, kidney, and lung.

Conclusions: The distribution of Epo and its receptor is more widespread in the developing human than was initially postulated. Epo-R is expressed on many cell types during early fetal development, leading us to speculate that Epo acts in concert with somatic growth and development factors during this period. Further investigation is required to understand the nonhematopoietic role of Epo during human development.

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex / chemistry
  • Adrenal Cortex / embryology
  • Blotting, Western
  • Embryonic and Fetal Development*
  • Erythropoietin / analysis*
  • Erythropoietin / genetics
  • Female
  • Fetus / metabolism*
  • Gestational Age
  • Humans
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Kidney / chemistry
  • Kidney / embryology
  • Liver / chemistry
  • Liver / embryology
  • Pregnancy
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Receptors, Erythropoietin / analysis*
  • Receptors, Erythropoietin / genetics
  • Retina / chemistry
  • Retina / embryology
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Tissue Distribution


  • RNA, Messenger
  • Receptors, Erythropoietin
  • Erythropoietin