Synergies between regulatory elements of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus and its palindromic 3' locus control region

Eur J Immunol. 1998 Oct;28(10):3048-56. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199810)28:10<3048::AID-IMMU3048>3.0.CO;2-V.


Transcriptional enhancers of the IgH locus include E mu and four 3' elements (C alpha3', hs1-2, hs3 and hs4), some of which are by themselves weak. We show that these weak elements behave as strong "co-enhancers" when combined, and display a stage-dependent activity which differs from that obtained when they are alone. Combinations mimicking the palindromic structure of the 3' IgH region are particularly efficient. Noticeably in pre-B cells, hs4 is boosted by the addition of elements previously considered inactive at this stage, hs1-2 and hs3. Combinations of 3' elements also strongly boost E mu at all maturation stages, but inhibitory interactions occasionally occur between E mu and incomplete 3' combinations, indicating that full transcriptional activity is mainly achieved when all 5' and 3' partners play their respective roles.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • B-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic*
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Genes, Immunoglobulin*
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cells / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains / genetics*
  • Jurkat Cells
  • T-Lymphocytes
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains