Neurological complications of radiotherapy and chemotherapy can affect the central or peripheral nervous system. Most are dose-dependent and constitute a limiting factor in the administration of treatments. Radiation-induced neurological complications are classified as acute, early-delayed or delayed. The most important are radionecrosis and cognitive dysfunction/leukoencephalopathy. Neurotoxicity of chemotherapy is frequent and depends upon dose, type of drugs (especially cisplatin and methotrexate) and their combination with radiotherapy.