Isolation and characterization of Salmonella typhimurium and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-containing phagosomes from infected mouse macrophages: Y. pseudotuberculosis traffics to terminal lysosomes where they are degraded

Eur J Cell Biol. 1998 Sep;77(1):35-47. doi: 10.1016/S0171-9335(98)80100-3.


The interaction of Salmonella and Yersinia with macrophages is critical to the pathogenesis of these organisms. After internalization into macrophages, these bacteria reside in membrane-enclosed vacuoles. In this report, we present an approach to isolate and characterize bacteria-containing vacuoles (BCVs) to study intracellular trafficking of pathogenic bacteria within the membrane system of host cells. Using the mouse monocyte-macrophage cell line J774A.1, we found that Salmonella typhimurium replicated intracellularly to approximately 5 times its original numbers over a 9 hour infection course, while Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli did not replicate inside these cells. Analysis of isolated latex bead-containing vacuoles confirmed that they trafficked normally from endosomes to lysosomes within the endocytic pathway of J774A.1 cells. We isolated BCVs free of contaminating endosomes and lysosomes using sucrose step gradients, and used quantitative immunoblotting to characterize the contents of these vacuoles at different time points after internalization. We found that the isolated BCVs contained endosomal and lysosomal marker proteins including lamp-1, mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M 6-PR), cathepsin D and cathepsin L. Further, we report on differential processing of lysosomal hydrolases (such as cathepsin D and cathepsin L) associated with the isolated BCVs. Although there was some contamination of the S. typhimurium-containing vacuoles with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker protein calnexin, the Y. pseudotuberculosis-containing vacuoles were predominately free of ER contamination. The Y. pseudotuberculosis-containing vacuoles displayed properties of lysosomes, containing the M 6-PR-dependent lysosomal hydrolases cathepsin D and cathepsin L, which were shown to be processed to their mature forms incrementally over time. These results, coupled with intracellular growth and microscopic examination of infected cells over time, indicated that Y. pseudotuberculosis traffics to lysosomes where they are degraded. The described method for isolation and characterization of BCVs proved to be a valuable tool to characterize the vacuolar compartment occupied by Y. pseudotuberculosis, and has potential to be applied to other vacuole resident pathogens whose trafficking is thought to play a role in pathogenesis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biological Transport
  • Biomarkers
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins / isolation & purification
  • Calnexin
  • Cell Fractionation
  • Cell Line
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum / chemistry
  • Lysosomes / microbiology*
  • Macrophages / cytology
  • Macrophages / microbiology*
  • Mice
  • Microscopy, Immunoelectron
  • Microspheres
  • Phagosomes / microbiology*
  • Salmonella typhimurium / growth & development
  • Salmonella typhimurium / pathogenicity*
  • Vacuoles / microbiology
  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis / growth & development
  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis / pathogenicity*


  • Biomarkers
  • Calcium-Binding Proteins
  • Calnexin