Differential beliefs, perceived social influences, and self-efficacy expectations among smokers in various motivational phases

Prev Med. Sep-Oct 1998;27(5 Pt 1):681-9. doi: 10.1006/pmed.1998.0344.


Background: The ASE model, an integration of social psychological models, states that motivational phases and the transition from one phase to another can be predicted by behavioral determinants. The goal of the present study was to replicate the so-called O pattern that was found in earlier Dutch studies.

Methods: In four cross-sectional studies (N = 918, N = 354, N = 225, N = 317), smokers filled in a questionnaire based on the ASE model, while the motivational phase question was based on the stage definitions from the Transtheoretical model.

Results: Precontemplating smokers perceived fewer advantages of quitting than contemplators. Precontemplators encountered less support for quitting than contemplators. Contemplators reported lower self-efficacy expectations than those in preparation, while this group had lower self-efficacy expectations than respondents in action. Ex-smokers in maintenance reported fewer disadvantages of quitting than those in action.

Conclusions: Since changes in cognitive determinants are thought to mediate transitions in motivational phases, the results can be used to tailor health education messages to the needs of smokers in the various motivational phases. The results suggest that smokers in precontemplation would benefit most from information about the pros of quitting and from obtaining support for quitting. Smokers in contemplation and preparation may benefit most from self-efficacy-enhancing information.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice*
  • Humans
  • Interpersonal Relations*
  • Male
  • Models, Psychological*
  • Motivation*
  • Patient Education as Topic / methods
  • Psychology, Educational
  • Psychology, Social
  • Self Efficacy*
  • Smoking / psychology*
  • Smoking Prevention*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires