Effectiveness of a telephone outcall intervention to promote screening mammography among low-income women

Prev Med. Sep-Oct 1998;27(5 Pt 2):S39-49. doi: 10.1006/pmed.1998.0395.


Background: This study evaluated the impact of a telephone outcall intervention (based on the Transtheoretical Model) on screening mammography behavior among lower income, older women.

Methods: A geodemographic database, INFORUM, was used to identify low-income and minority neighborhoods throughout the state of Colorado. Residences were assigned randomly to three study groups: (1) control, (2) outcall only, and (3) advance "invitation" + outcall. Information Specialists of the Cancer Information Service implemented the protocol. Mammography adherence was assessed in telephone interviews conducted 6 months and 2 years after the initial call.

Results: Neither intervention had a significant effect on the main outcome, receipt of mammography in the 6-month follow-up period. At 6 months, intentions to have a mammogram were significantly stronger in the intervention groups compared with the control group, particularly among those who were precontemplators at baseline. The 2-year follow-up indicated a small increase in mammography adherence attributable to the advance invitation + outcall, but this effect was restricted to those adherent at baseline. Mammography behavior during the 6-month follow-up period was predicted strongly by decisional balance, intentions, receipt of a physical and clinical breast exam, and previous mammography behavior.

Conclusions: The intervention promoted minimal movement in the stages of change for mammography. Outcall interventions may have promise for encouraging repeat mammography behavior, but more intensive interventions are likely to be necessary to promote behavior change among nonadherent women.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Colorado
  • Decision Making
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Health Behavior*
  • Health Promotion / methods*
  • Humans
  • Information Services*
  • Logistic Models
  • Mammography* / psychology
  • Mammography* / statistics & numerical data
  • Middle Aged
  • Minority Groups
  • Models, Psychological
  • Neoplasms / prevention & control*
  • Odds Ratio
  • Poverty
  • Telephone