T-20, a synthetic peptide corresponding to a region of the transmembrane subunit of the HIV-1 envelope protein, blocks cell fusion and viral entry at concentrations of less than 2 ng/ml in vitro. We administered intravenous T-20 (monotherapy) for 14 days to sixteen HIV-infected adults in four dose groups (3, 10, 30 and 100 mg twice daily). There were significant, dose-related declines in plasma HIV RNA in all subjects who received higher dose levels. All four subjects receiving 100 mg twice daily had a decline in plasma HIV RNA to less than 500 copies/ml, by bDNA assay. A sensitive RT-PCR assay (detection threshold 40 copies/ml) demonstrated that, although undetectable levels were not achieved in the 14-day dosing period, there was a 1.96 log10 median decline in plasma HIV RNA in these subjects. This study provides proof-of-concept that viral entry can be successfully blocked in vivo. Short-term administration of T-20 seems safe and provides potent inhibition of HIV replication comparable to anti-retroviral regimens approved at present.