Prevention and treatment of tuberculosis among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus: principles of therapy and revised recommendations. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

MMWR Recomm Rep. 1998 Oct 30;47(RR-20):1-58.


These guidelines update previous CDC recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of tuberculosis (TB) among adults and children coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the United States. The most notable changes in these guidelines reflect both the findings of clinical trials that evaluated new drug regimens for treating and preventing TB among HIV-infected persons and recent advances in the use of antiretroviral therapy. In September 1997, when CDC convened a meeting of expert consultants to discuss current information about HIV-related TB, special emphasis was given to issues related to coadministration of TB therapy and antiretroviral therapy and how to translate this information into management guidelines. Thus, these guidelines are based on the following scientific principles: * Early diagnosis and effective treatment of TB among HIV-infected patients are critical for curing TB, minimizing the negative effects of TB on the course of HIV, and interrupting the transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to other persons in the community. * All HIV-infected persons at risk for infection with M. tubercu losis must be carefully evaluated and, if indicated, administered therapy to prevent the progression of latent infection to active TB disease and avoid the complications associated with HIV-related TB. * All HIV-infected patients undergoing treatment for TB should be evaluated for antiretroviral therapy, because most patients with HIV-related TB are candidates for concurrent administration of antituberculosis and antiretroviral drug therapies. However, the use of rifampin with protease inhibitors or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is contraindicated. Ideally, the management of TB among HIV-infected patients taking antiretroviral drugs requires a) directly observed therapy, b) availability of experienced and coordinated TB/HIV care givers, and in most situations, c) use of a TB treatment regimen that includes rifabutin instead of rifampin. Because alternatives to the use of rifampin for antituberculosis treatment are now available, the previously recommended practice of stopping protease inhibitor therapy to allow the use of rifampin for TB treatment is no longer recommended for patients with HIV-related TB. The use of rifabutin-containing antituberculosis regimens should always include an assessment of the patient's response to treatment to decide the appropriate duration of therapy (i.e., 6 months or 9 months). Physicians and patients also should be aware that paradoxical reactions might occur during the course of TB treatment when antiretroviral therapy restores immune function. Adding to CDC's current recommendations for administering isoniazid preventive therapy to HIV-infected persons with positive tuberculin skin tests and to HIV-infected persons who were exposed to patients with infectious TB, this report also describes in detail the use of new shortcourse (i.e., 2 months) multidrug regimens (e.g., a rifamycin, such as rifampin or rifabutin, combined with pyrazinamide) to prevent TB in persons with HIV infection. A continuing education component for U.S. physicians and nurses is included.

Publication types

  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline

MeSH terms

  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology
  • AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / prevention & control*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antitubercular Agents / therapeutic use*
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Tuberculosis / complications
  • Tuberculosis / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis / prevention & control*
  • Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant / complications
  • Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant / epidemiology
  • Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant / prevention & control
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Antitubercular Agents