Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze long-term follow-up information over several years from consecutive, unselected patients treated with direct percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) for acute myocardial infarction (MI).
Background: Direct PTCA is often used in patients with acute MI. Short-term results are favorable. However, there is less information available on long-term observations over several years in these patients.
Methods: A total of 416 consecutive and unselected patients with acute MI underwent direct PTCA. Survival of the acute infarct phase was 94.2%; the remaining 392 patients--the study population-were discharged and followed for 3.3+/-1.4 years. Mortality as well as cardiac events and reinterventions are reported. Clinical variables assessed at the time of discharge are submitted to statistical analysis to detect potential risk factors.
Results: Total cumulative mortality in the first year was 10% for the entire group and 6% for patients not presenting in cardiogenic shock. Mortality after discharge was 4.6% in the first year and dropped to <4% per year thereafter. Reinterventions after discharge were required in 16% in the first year and in <4% per year in years 2 to 4. Poor left ventricular ejection fraction (<35%), three-vessel disease and advanced age (> or =75 years) were long-term risk factors for total mortality after direct PTCA.
Conclusions: The clinical benefit of direct PTCA for acute MI is maintained during follow-up with respect to mortality. However, reinterventions for restenosis or de novo stenosis are often required (10% to 20%). Although few in number (<10%), patients with severely impaired left ventricular function continue to have a poor prognosis.