Most natural actions are chosen voluntarily from many possible choices. An action is often chosen based on the reward that it is expected to produce. What kind of cellular activity in which area of the cerebral cortex is involved in selecting an action according to the expected reward value? Results of an analysis in monkeys of cellular activity during the performance of reward-based motor selection and the effects of chemical inactivation are presented. We suggest that cells in the rostral cingulate motor area, one of the higher order motor areas in the cortex, play a part in processing the reward information for motor selection.