The source of origin of PACAP- and VIP-immunoreactive fibers in the laterodorsal division of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the rat

Brain Res. 1998 Nov 9;810(1-2):211-9. doi: 10.1016/s0006-8993(98)00692-1.


The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTL), which is known to be involved in the modulation of stress responses, exhibits a dense network of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) immunoreactive (ir) fibers. The origin of the PACAP-ir fibers is unknown, and the origin of the VIP-ir fibers remains uncertain. The most important brain regions connected to the BSTL are the amygdaloid nuclei, the paraventricular and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei, mesencephalic periaqueductal grey, the dorsal and linear raphe nuclei, the parabrachial nucleus, and the dorsal vagal complex. After microinjecting cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in the BSTL as a retrograde tracer, neurons were double labeled for CTB and PACAP or VIP immunohistochemistry and the cells from which the PACAP- and VIP-ir fiber networks in the BSTL originated were identified. Cholera toxin B subunit labeled and VIP-ir cells were found in the mesencephalic periaqueductal grey and the dorsal and linear raphe nuclei, but no double labeled cells were seen in the amygdaloid nuclei or the hypothalamic region. CTB- and PACAP-ir neurons were observed in the paraventricular nucleus and the dorsal vagal complex. No double labeled perikarya were seen in the parabrachial nucleus or in the amygdaloid nuclei.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cholera Toxin
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • Male
  • Nerve Fibers / metabolism*
  • Neuropeptides / metabolism*
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism*
  • Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred Strains
  • Thalamus / cytology*
  • Thalamus / metabolism*
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide / metabolism*


  • Adcyap1 protein, rat
  • Neuropeptides
  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide
  • Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
  • Cholera Toxin