Multiple dideoxynucleoside analogue-resistant (MddNR) HIV-1 strains isolated from patients from different European countries

AIDS. 1998 Oct 22;12(15):2007-15. doi: 10.1097/00002030-199815000-00012.


Objective: To study the prevalence of multiple dideoxynucleoside (ddN)-resistant (MddNR) HIV-1 in European patients under treatment with multiple ddN analogues, and to characterize MddNR strains genotypically and phenotypically.

Design and methods: Blood samples from patients after > or = 6 months of treatment with multiple ddN were screened for the MddNR mutation Q151M. After confirmation of MddNR in 15 patients from five European countries, genotypic resistance was evaluated by DNA sequencing of the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene. Phenotypic resistance was measured by the recombinant virus assay. Results were compared with the clinical evolution of the patients.

Results: The prevalence of MddNR strains in European patients treated with multiple ddN analogues was 3.5%. Viruses typically contained amino acid substitutions V75F, F77L, F116Y and Q151M in the RT gene. A new mutation, S68G, was frequently associated with MddNR. Phenotypically, viruses displayed high-level resistance to zidovudine (ZDV), didanosine (ddl), zalcitabine (ddC), stavudine (d4T) and partial resistance to lamivudine (3TC) once multiple mutations were present. Under in-vivo treatment pressure, some MddNR strains additionally developed resistance to protease inhibitors or non-nucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTI). Clinically, most patients had advanced HIV disease with low CD4 cell counts, high viral loads and a rapid progression, but two patients harbouring MddNR virus responded well to dual protease inhibitor associations.

Conclusions: MddNR resistant HIV-1 can be found in European patients. MddNR is characterized by a specific set of drug resistance mutations, cross-resistance to most ddN analogues and a fast clinical progression. MddNR can be associated with protease inhibitor or NNRTI resistance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage
  • Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology*
  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • Dideoxynucleosides / administration & dosage
  • Dideoxynucleosides / pharmacology*
  • Dideoxynucleosides / therapeutic use
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple / genetics*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Europe
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / virology*
  • HIV-1 / drug effects*
  • HIV-1 / genetics
  • HIV-1 / isolation & purification
  • Humans
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Phenotype
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / administration & dosage
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Species Specificity


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Dideoxynucleosides
  • Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors