The Italian SF-36 Health Survey: translation, validation and norming

J Clin Epidemiol. 1998 Nov;51(11):1025-36. doi: 10.1016/s0895-4356(98)00094-8.


This article reports on the development and validation of the Italian SF-36 Health Survey using data from seven studies in which an Italian version of the SF-36 was administered to more than 7000 subjects between 1991 and 1995. Empirical findings from a wide array of studies and diseases indicate that the performance of the questionnaire improved as the Italian translation was revised and that it met the standards suggested by the literature in terms of feasibility, psychometric tests, and interpretability. This generally satisfactory picture strengthens the idea that the Italian SF-36 is as valid and reliable as the original instrument and applicable and valid across age, gender, and disease. Empirical evidence from a cross-sectional survey carried out to norm the final version in a representative sample of 2031 individuals confirms the questionnaire's characteristics in terms of hypothesized constructs and psychometric behavior and gives a better picture of its external validity (i.e., robustness and generalizability) when administered in settings that are very close to real world.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Cultural Comparison
  • Factor Analysis, Statistical
  • Health Status Indicators*
  • Humans
  • Italy / epidemiology
  • Psychometrics*
  • Quality of Life*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Translations