In previous work, we have demonstrated that oleate induces a massive proliferation of microbodies (peroxisomes) in Aspergillus nidulans. Although at a lower level, proliferation of peroxisomes also occurs in cells growing under conditions that induce penicillin biosynthesis. Here, microbodies in oleate-grown A. nidulans cells were characterized by using several antibodies that recognize peroxisomal enzymes and peroxins in a broad spectrum of eukaryotic organisms such as yeast, and plant, and mammalian cells. Peroxisomes were immunolabeled by anti-SKL and anti-thiolase antibodies, which suggests that A. nidulans conserves both PTS1 and PTS2 import mechanisms. Isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, the two key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, were also localized in these organelles. In contrast to reports of Neurospora crassa, our results demonstrate that A. nidulans contains only one type of microbody (peroxisomes) that carry out the glyoxylate cycle and contain 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase and proteins with the C-terminal SKL tripeptide.