High-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection for the determination of phenolic compounds in peel and pulp from different apple varieties

J Chromatogr A. 1998 Oct 9;823(1-2):331-7. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9673(98)00294-5.


Quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds from four apple varieties (Golden and Red Delicious, Granny Smith and Green Reineta) using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection was carried out. For each variety, both peel and pulp were analysed. The identification of phenolic compounds was made by comparing their retention times and UV spectra with those of standards. The results revealed differences between pulp and peel in all cases studied. The highest levels of phenolic compounds were found in the peel. High levels of catechins and flavonol glycosides, especially rutin, were found in apple peels. Chlorogenic acid was the major peak in the pulp for all apple varieties studied except for Granny Smith. Significant quantitative differences between the apple varieties were also found, the Golden Delicious variety showing the lowest content of phenolic compounds and Green Reineta variety the highest. The recovery of phenolic compounds from both peel and pulp was measured in all apple varieties. The values ranged between 95 and 105%, indicating close to quantitative recovery for the method used.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Caffeic Acids / analysis
  • Catechin / analysis
  • Chlorogenic Acid / analysis
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Phenols / analysis*
  • Phlorhizin / analysis
  • Rosales / chemistry*
  • Rutin / analysis
  • Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet


  • Caffeic Acids
  • Phenols
  • Chlorogenic Acid
  • Rutin
  • Catechin
  • Phlorhizin
  • caffeic acid