In this study we addressed whether the proportion and the function of antigen presenting cells (APC), T and NK lymphocytes are modified in the apheresis product of six healthy donors who received a stem cell mobilizing treatment with glycosylated G-CSF at 10 microg/kg/day x 5 days s.c. Flow cytometry analysis showed comparable percentages of HLA-DR+, CD19+, CD86+, CD80+ and CD1a+ cells in preG-CSF-peripheral blood mononuclear cells (preG-PBMC) and after mobilization in G-PBMC, whereas the proportion of CD14+ monocytes significantly increased in G-PBMC (3+/-1% vs 17+/-8%, P = 0.003). Analysis of lymphocyte subsets in preG-PBMC and G-PBMC showed similar proportions of CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD28+ T cells, but a significantly lower percentage of CD16+ (11+/-7% vs 4+/-1%, P=0.01), CD56+ (15+/-6% vs 5+/-2%, P= 0.008), CD57+ (16+/-9% vs 5+/-2%, P=0.04), CD25+ (19+/-2% vs 9+/-6%, p=0.009) and CD122+ (5+/-2% vs 2+/-1%, P = 0.05) cells in G-PBMC. Unfractionated preG-PBMC and G-PBMC were irradiated and tested in primary mixed leukocyte culture (MLC) with two HLA-incompatible responders and induced efficient alloresponses in four of six cases, whereas G-PBMC stimulated poorly in the remaining two cases. Also, in allo-MLC with irradiated G-PBMC we detected lower amounts of IFN-gamma (P = 0.04) and of IL-2 (P = 0.06) than in allo-MLC with preG-PBMC. Furthermore, freshly isolated preG-PBMC and G-PBMC from each donor exerted comparable allogeneic responses to HLA-incompatible irradiated mononuclear cells in all cases. However, G-PBMC showed no NK activity against K562 target cells at any effector:target ratio tested. These data suggest that normal G-PBMC may prevent Thl alloresponses, maintain efficient alloreactivity to HLA mismatched antigens and have impaired NK activity.