Four polymorphic microsatellite loci were used to assess biological parentage of 453 offspring from 15 pregnant males from a natural population of the Western Australian seahorse Hippocampus angustus. Microsatellite genotypes in the progeny arrays were consistent with a monogamous mating system in which both females and males had a single mate during a male brooding period. Multilocus genotypes implicated four females in the adult population sample as contributors of eggs to the broods of collected males, but there was no evidence for multiple mating by females. Based on genotypic data from the progeny arrays, two loci were linked tightly and the recombination rate appeared to be approximately 10-fold higher in females than in males. The utility of linked loci for parentage analyses is discussed.