Purpose: To determine the safety and efficacy of trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C in patients 17 years of age or younger, and to identify risk factors for failure of this surgical technique.
Methods: Retrospective review of consecutive cases of pediatric glaucoma that underwent mitomycin C augmented trabeculectomy between January 1991 and December 1995. Forty-nine patients (60 eyes) with a mean age of 7.6 years (range, 6 weeks to 17.6 years) were identified and followed up until repeat glaucoma surgery, or after a minimum of 6 months. Success was defined as intraocular pressure control of 22 mm Hg or less with or without topical glaucoma control medication, no evidence of glaucoma progression, no further glaucoma surgery necessary, and no visually devastating complication.
Results: Cumulative probabilities of success +/- SD for 49 eyes (one eye per patient) were 67% +/- 13% at 12 months and 59% +/- 15% at 24 months. Multivariate regression analysis yielded the following characteristics as significantly increased risk for failure: age of less than 1 year at time of surgery (risk ratio, 5.6; confidence interval, 2.1 to 14.7; P = .0005), and aphakia (risk ratio, 2.7; confidence interval, 1.1 to 6.9; P = .0364). Shallow anterior chamber (17 [28%] of 60 eyes) and serous choroidal detachment (13 [22%] of 60 eyes) were the most common complications. Four (11%) of 38 eyes with obtainable Snellen acuity were noted to have a decrease in best-corrected visual acuity of more than 2 Snellen lines or loss of light perception. In 5 (8%) of 60 eyes bleb-related endophthalmitis was noted.
Conclusions: Trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C is generally effective for the treatment of pediatric glaucoma, especially in phakic children over 1 year of age. However, late-onset bleb-related endophthalmitis is a substantial risk in this patient population.