Heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90 are sex steroid receptor-associated proteins, and HSP90 expression has reportedly been correlated with sex steroid receptor status in endometrial carcinomas. HSP70 is also known to associate with several oncogene products such as p53 protein, and expression of HSP70 has been reported to be a prognostic factor in several malignant neoplasms. In endometrial carcinomas, however, little is known about the prognostic significance of these proteins. Therefore, we analyzed the survival of 44 endometrial carcinoma patients treated in our hospital with reference to the immunohistochemical expressions of HSP70 and HSP90, as well as the clinicopathological factors such as age, menstrual status, FIGO stage, histologic grade, p53 protein overexpression, and sex steroid receptor status. The expression of HSP70 was observed in 50% (22 cases), and strong HSP90 expression in 30% (13 cases) of the 44 carcinomas. The patients with HSP70-positive tumors showed significantly poorer survival than the patients with HSP70-negative tumors (p = 0.045), although multivariate analysis did not reveal HSP70 expression to be an independent prognostic factor. In contrast, the strong expression of HSP90 in the tumor was significantly correlated with a favorable prognosis of the patient (p = 0.026). Other prognostic indicators were FIGO stage (p = 0.0086) and the expression of progesterone receptor (p = 0.042). Accordingly, expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 each have different prognostic significance in endometrial carcinoma and may be useful for prediction of patient survival.