Evaluation of functional deficits determined by four different hop tests in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency

Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 1998;6(4):241-5. doi: 10.1007/s001670050106.


The purpose of this study was to analyze the validity of the newly designed functional ability test (FAT) for the normal population and patients with deficiency of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The FAT consists of four tests: the figure-of-eight hop, the up-down hop, the side hop, and the single hop. Sixty control subjects and 50 patients with unilateral ACL deficiency were tested. In the control group, the values measured were significantly different between males and females in all of the tests. On the other hand, when left/right difference values were compared, no significant difference was found between males and females in any of the tests. More than 95% of control group exhibited symmetrical function in each part of the FAT, whereas in the ACL-deficient group, the percentage of patients who showed abnormal symmetry was 68% in the figure-of-eight hop, 58% in the up-down hop, 44% in the side hop, and 42% in the single hop. The percentage of ACL-deficient patients with functional asymmetry in at least one of the four tests was 82%. The FAT was found to be useful in evaluating lower limb function in ACL-deficient patients.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament / physiopathology*
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Functional Laterality / physiology
  • Humans
  • Knee Injuries / diagnosis
  • Knee Injuries / physiopathology
  • Locomotion / physiology*
  • Male
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Sex Characteristics