Tuberculosis is a serious opportunistic infection in transplant recipients. On the basis of the compilation of published reports in the literature, the incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in organ transplant recipients worldwide ranged from 0.35% to 15%. Nonrenal transplantation (P = .004), rejection within 6 months before the onset of tuberculosis (P = .02) and type of primary immunosuppressive regimen (P = .007) were predictors of M. tuberculosis infection occurring within 12 months after transplantation. Thirty-three percent (155) of 476 transplant patients with tuberculosis had disseminated infection; receipt of OKT3 or anti-T cell antibodies (P = .005) was a significant predictor of disseminated tuberculosis. Overall, the mortality rate among 499 patients was 29%; disseminated infection (P = .0003), prior rejection (P = .006), and receipt of OKT3 or anti-T cell antibodies (P = .0013) were significant predictors of mortality in patients with tuberculosis. Clinically significant hepatotoxicity due to isoniazid occurred in 2.5%, 4.5%, and 41% of renal, heart and lung, and liver transplant recipients, respectively. The diagnosis and effective management of tuberculosis after transplantation warrant recognition of the unique epidemiological and clinical characteristics of tuberculosis in transplant recipients.