Adjuncts to dopamine replacement: a pragmatic approach to reducing the problem of dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease

Mov Disord. 1998 Nov;13(6):871-6. doi: 10.1002/mds.870130603.


Dyskinesias following long-term dopamine replacement therapy are a major limitation of current treatments for Parkinson's disease. Recently, attention has been focused on the concept of using non-dopaminergic adjuncts to currently available therapies in an attempt to reduce the problem of dyskinesia. Thus, an enhanced understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying dyskinetic symptoms has led to the realization that it might be possible to manipulate non-dopaminergic systems and reduce dyskinesia without compromising the anti-parkinsonian efficacy of drugs such as L-dopa. This article discusses how non-dopaminergic manipulations could reverse the abnormalities in basal ganglia circuitry responsible for generating dyskinesia. It is proposed that potential anti-dyskinetic drugs might include glutamate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, opioid receptor antagonists, cannabinoid receptor agonists or antagonists, alpha2 adrenergic receptor antagonists, and 5-HT-enhancing agents.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenergic Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Animals
  • Antiparkinson Agents / adverse effects
  • Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cannabinoids / antagonists & inhibitors
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / physiopathology
  • Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced / prevention & control*
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Levodopa / adverse effects
  • Narcotic Antagonists
  • Neurons / drug effects
  • Parkinson Disease / drug therapy*
  • Parkinson Disease / physiopathology
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / therapeutic use


  • Adrenergic Antagonists
  • Antiparkinson Agents
  • Cannabinoids
  • Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists
  • Narcotic Antagonists
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
  • Levodopa