Promotion, prediction and prevention of progression of nephropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus

Diabet Med. 1998 Nov;15(11):900-19. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1096-9136(1998110)15:11<900::AID-DIA709>3.0.CO;2-0.


The scope of the present review is to discuss the prognosis of diabetic renal disease, putative progression promoters and the possibilities for treatment and prediction of treatment efficacy. The recent changes in the incidence of diabetic nephropathy in Type 1 diabetes mellitus are discussed. Promoters of progression in diabetic nephropathy are evaluated, in particular arterial blood pressure, glycaemic control, albuminuria and cholesterol levels. Potential treatment modalities are discussed, with special focus on antihypertensive therapy, including a discussion of a specific renoprotective action of certain antihypertensive agents. Furthermore putative predictors of treatment efficacy are evaluated, demonstrating that the ability to lower the urinary albumin excretion rate after onset of treatment heralds a slow progression of the renal disease. The prognosis in diabetic renal disease has improved with an increase in median survival after onset of nephropathy from 6 to 15 years. This has exposed the importance of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The identification and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has become essential. Although the prognosis has improved remarkably, the primary goal should be prevention of diabetic nephropathy, as it is unlikely that the increased risks associated with this complication can be eliminated.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / physiopathology*
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / drug therapy
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / physiopathology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / diagnosis
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / epidemiology
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / physiopathology*
  • Diabetic Nephropathies / prevention & control
  • Diet, Protein-Restricted
  • Disease Progression
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy
  • Incidence
  • Prognosis
  • Proteinuria


  • Antihypertensive Agents
  • Blood Glucose