Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the status of alterations of the MDM2, Rb and p53 genes in a series of 45 liposarcomas. Furthermore, the possible correlation with histological and clinical parameters was studied.
Methods: MDM2 amplification was examined by non-radioactive Southern blot hybridization with a human MDM2 cDNA probe. Mutations in the p53 gene were screened by polymerase chain reaction/single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing. To study loss of heterozygosity (LOH) at the tumor-suppressor genes Rb and p53, we used four polymorphic intragenic Rb markers (introns 1, 17, 20, and 25) and two p53 markers (intron 1 and exon 4).
Results: MDM2 amplification was found in 19 of 45 liposarcomas (42.2%). The frequency of LOH in Rb and p53 was nearly identical (22%). In 4 of 9 tumors (44.4%) with LOH, allelic loss was a concurrent event in both genes. Of 45 liposarcomas, 6 (13.3%) showed p53 mutations. Overall, alterations of the p53/MDM2/Rb pathway occurred in 30 of 45 liposarcomas (66.6%). In contrast to myxoid and pleomorphic variants, well-differentiated liposarcomas were characterized by a high frequency of MDM2 amplification, a lack of LOH of Rb and p53, and p53 mutations.
Conclusions: Obviously MDM2 amplification and LOH at the Rh and p53 genes do not occur simultaneously in the oncogenesis of liposarcomas, as is the case for MDM2 amplification and p53 gene mutations (with one exception). We suggest that well-differentiated, myxoid and pleomorphic liposarcomas are characterized by a different pattern of molecular alterations.