Medical, morphological and functional aspects of Greek football referees

J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1998 Sep;38(3):208-14.


Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate state of health, morphological and functional profile of football referees (Rs).

Experimental design: A prevalence study.

Participants: 188 Greek active male Rs of A, B, C and D football divisions have been evaluated.

Measures: Standard clinical-instrumental and anthropometric methods were used. Appropriate functional tests were used for evaluation of visual performance, physical condition and mental ability.

Results: Mean age, height, weight, and BMI were 36.3 +/- 4.5 years, 177.4 +/- 5.7 cm, 81.6 +/- 7.8 kg, and 25.9 +/- 2.1 kg.m-2 respectively. 64% and 6% were overweight and obese respectively. In 27.2% resting blood pressure exceeded upper normal limits. Active (41.5%) and former smokers (17.0%) were identified. Visual acuity and colour discrimination were defective in 2.4% and 0.7% respectively. Stereo depth perception deficiently in 7.1%. Compared to international standards, Rs' mean scores in the 6 physical condition field tests were found satisfactory. All Rs were found efficient in the agility test, two-thirds in the maximal and prolonged speed tests and half of them in the endurance test. Relatively more Rs of A and B divisions were found fit as compared to Rs of C and D divisions. Average IQ score was 112.5 +/- 11.1, while about 90% and 34% of the Rs' IQ score was > or = 100 and > or = 120 respectively.

Conclusions: Average male Greek football R is an apparently healthy, young to middle aged, rather overweight, and functionally efficient. The great majority of Rs of A and B divisions appear better trained and somewhat better functional than Rs of C and D divisions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure / physiology
  • Body Height
  • Body Mass Index
  • Body Weight
  • Color Vision Defects / physiopathology
  • Depth Perception / physiology
  • Greece
  • Health Status
  • Humans
  • Intelligence / physiology
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / physiopathology
  • Physical Endurance / physiology
  • Physical Fitness / physiology
  • Smoking / physiopathology
  • Soccer / education
  • Soccer / physiology*
  • Vision Disorders / physiopathology
  • Vision, Ocular / physiology
  • Visual Acuity / physiology