Integrative aspects of a human model of endotoxemia

Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998 May;76(5):473-8. doi: 10.1139/cjpp-76-5-473.


The production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is a key step in the response to sepsis and has powerful local and systemic effects on the host. These systemic responses include a complex cascade of centrally mediated endocrine and neural responses. An integrative model of these regulatory cytokine-neuroendocrine interactions in humans is presented. The rapid kinetics of these responses are illustrated by data showing the response of normal human subjects to experimental endotoxemia. Appreciation of the integrative biology of the in vivo response to experimental endotoxemia can provide a framework for the design of experiments aimed at examining the effects of physical training paradigms on particular cytokine and neuroendocrine pathways.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / drug effects
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism
  • Cytokines / metabolism*
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone / metabolism
  • Hormones / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Hydrocortisone / metabolism
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Lipopolysaccharides / pharmacology*
  • Models, Biological
  • Norepinephrine / metabolism
  • Receptors, Cytokine / metabolism
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor / metabolism
  • Sepsis / physiopathology*
  • Time Factors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / drug effects
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / physiology*


  • Cytokines
  • Hormones
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Receptors, Cytokine
  • Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Dehydroepiandrosterone
  • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • Hydrocortisone
  • Norepinephrine