Angiotensin II, nitric oxide, and end-organ damage in hypertension

Kidney Int Suppl. 1998 Dec;68:S14-9. doi: 10.1046/j.1523-1755.1998.06806.x.


The adaptive changes that accompany hypertension and involve the kidney, heart, and vessels, namely, muscle hypertrophy/hyperplasia, endothelial dysfunction and extracellular matrix increase can, in fact, be maladaptive and eventually lead to end-organ disease, such as renal failure, heart failure, and coronary disease. However, these changes vary markedly between individuals with similar levels of hypertension. Nitric oxide (NO), an endogenous vasodilator and inhibitor of vascular smooth muscle and mesangial cell growth, is synthesized in the endothelium by a constitutive NO synthase (NOS). NO antagonizes the effects of angiotensin II on vascular tone and growth and also down-regulates the synthesis of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin II type 1 (AT-1) receptors. In hypertension, the physiologic response to the increased shear stress and cyclic strain is to upregulate NOS activity in endothelial cells. Upregulation of vascular NOS activity is a homeostatic adaptation to the increased hemodynamic workload that may help in preventing end-organ damage. Indeed, hypertension-prone salt-sensitive rats manifest a decrease (instead of an increase) in vascular NOS activity when hypertensive; these rats develop severe vascular hypertrophy, left ventricular hypertrophy, and renal injury. Studies in hypertensive humans suggest that, independent of the effects of salt on blood pressure, salt sensitivity may be a marker for susceptibility to the development of endothelial dysfunction as well as cardiovascular and renal injury. We hypothesize that in hypertension, recognition of markers of cardiovascular susceptibility to injury and the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms involved may open new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. In this context, only those antihypertensive agents that lower blood pressure and concomitantly restore the homeostatic balance of vasoactive agents such as angiotensin II and NO within the vessel wall would be effective in preventing or arresting end-organ disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Angiotensin II / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Hypertension, Renal / metabolism*
  • Kidney / metabolism*
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism*


  • Angiotensin II
  • Nitric Oxide