Since the advent of a nondegradable controlled local delivery of antibiotics in 1979, several second generation systems have been developed. Second generation systems have attempted to improve on the early system. Chlorhexidine has been used effectively for over 30 years as an antiseptic. In the early 1970s, chlorhexidine gluconate was incorporated at 0.2% into mouthrinses in Europe and in 1986 it was incorporated at 0.12% in a mouthrinse in the United States. Since these mouthrinses were effective in reducing the supragingival flora, had a high safety margin, and had no reported bacterial resistance, chlorhexidine offered a therapeutic advantage for a local delivery system. This system was developed and studied. This report will discuss this new biodegradable system containing chlorhexidine gluconate as the active agent (PerioChip). Pharmacokinetics of the system and a review of the multicenter studies in Europe and the United States are discussed. In these randomized clinical trials the chlorhexidine chip has been shown to enhance the effects of scaling and root planing. Chlorhexidine chip in conjunction with scaling and root planing, when compared to scaling and root planing alone, has shown significant improvement in probing pocket depth reduction, probing attachment level and bleeding on probing. This delivery system, in combination with scaling and root planing, has also resulted in significantly more probing depth reductions of 2 mm or more. The system is safe and efficacious. Placement of the chip is usually done in less than 1 min, it requires no retention system, biodegrades, and does not require a follow-up dental appointment.