Objective: To evaluate the perinatal and 2-year outcomes in pregnancies complicated by preterm premature rupture of membranes (PROM) during the second trimester.
Methods: Fifty-three consecutive singleton pregnancies with PROM at 14 to 28 weeks of gestation were studied retrospectively. Management goals were to prolong the pregnancies to 32 weeks through expectant management and to avoid fetal compromise through closer monitoring and active intervention, when necessary, after 23 weeks. Outcome of the surviving infants was based on neurologic, audiometric, and ophthalmologic examinations at 2 years of corrected age.
Results: Rupture of membranes occurred at 14-19 weeks (mean 17.4 weeks) in 10 women, at 20-25 weeks (mean 24.0 weeks) in 24, and at 26-28 weeks (mean 27.6 weeks) in 19. The median latency periods to delivery were 72 days, 12 days, and 10 days when rupture of membranes occurred at 14-19 weeks, 20-25 weeks, and 26-28 weeks, respectively. The overall incidence of chorioamnionitis was 28%. There were no fetal deaths and nine neonatal deaths. When rupture of membranes occurred at 14-19 weeks, 20-25 weeks, and 26-28 weeks, the perinatal survival rates were 40%, 92%, and, 100%, respectively. Pulmonary hypoplasia accounted for seven deaths. Of the live-born infants, 81% were alive at 2 years of corrected age. Survival without major impairment was observed in 75%, 80%, and 100% of the survivors when rupture of membranes occurred at 14-19 weeks, 20-25 weeks, and 26-28 weeks, respectively.
Conclusion: Expectant management of second-trimester PROM offers better perinatal and long-term survival than previously thought.