Distinct risk factors for intrauterine and intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus transmission and consequences for disease progression in infected children. Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study

J Infect Dis. 1999 Jan;179(1):52-8. doi: 10.1086/314551.


Predictors and prognosis of intrauterine and intrapartum human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission were investigated among 432 children of HIV-infected women in the Perinatal AIDS Collaborative Transmission Study. Timing of transmission was inferred from polymerase chain reaction or viral culture within 2 days of birth. Proportions of infections due to intrauterine transmission were similar among women using (29%) or not using zidovudine (30%). Preterm delivery was strongly associated with intrapartum transmission (relative risk, 3.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-6.1), particularly among infants delivered longer after membrane rupture, but was not associated with intrauterine transmission. Progression to AIDS or death increased 2.5-fold (95% CI, 1.1-5.8) among intrauterine infected children, adjusting for preterm delivery, and maternal CD4 cell count. Early transmission appears unlikely to explain instances of zidovudine failure. Preterm infants may be more vulnerable to HIV acquisition at delivery, especially if membrane rupture is prolonged. Intrauterine infection does not appear to increase risk of preterm delivery.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • Female
  • Gestational Age
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections / transmission*
  • Humans
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Infant, Premature
  • Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical* / prevention & control
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / drug therapy
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / immunology
  • Pregnancy Complications, Infectious / virology*
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Time Factors
  • Zidovudine / therapeutic use


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Zidovudine