Defining the cardia as consisting of 2 cm of the distal esophagus and 2 cm of the proximal stomach, we describe the detailed histopathological features of the cardia and esophagogastric junction (EGJ). The distance between the EGJ and the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) was 0-10 mm (mean: 3 mm) in 50 Japanese autopsy cases, but the SCJ was not located below the EGJ. It has been reported that pancreatic metaplasia, small leiomyomas, inflammatory EGJ polyps, carditis, and Barrett's epithelium are often recognizable in the cardia, and the literature on these conditions is reviewed. The relationship between leiomyomas and gastrointestinal stromal tumors is also reviewed, and the histopathology of short-segment Barrett's esophagus is described. In biopsy specimens obtained from Barrett's esophagus, the presence of ducts of esophageal glands proper in the metaplastic mucosa as revealed by microscopy can be used to establish the diagnosis, although only in a short-segment of Barrett's esophagus less than 3 cm in length. Finally, several English and Japanese textbooks on the pathology of the digestive tract containing descriptions of normal and diseased cardia are described for the convenience of authors writing scientific papers on diseases of the cardia.