The relative expression amounts of apterous and its co-factor dLdb/Chip are critical for dorso-ventral compartmentalization in the Drosophila wing

EMBO J. 1998 Dec 1;17(23):6846-53. doi: 10.1093/emboj/17.23.6846.


Dorso-ventral axis formation in the Drosophila wing requires the localized accumulation of the Apterous LIM/homeodomain protein (Ap) in dorsal cells. Here we report that dLdb/Chip encodes a LIM-binding cofactor that controls Ap activity. Both lack and excess of dLdb/Chip function cause the same phenotype as apterous (ap) lack of function; i.e. dorsal to ventral transformations, generation of new wing margins, and wing outgrowths. These results indicate that the normal function of Ap in dorso-ventral compartmentalization requires the correct amount of the DLDB/CHIP co-factor, and suggest that the Ap and DLDB/CHIP proteins form a multimeric functional complex. In support of this model, we show that the dLdb/Chip excess-of-function phenotypes can be rescued by ap overexpression.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified
  • Body Patterning
  • Drosophila / growth & development
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Gene Expression
  • Guinea Pigs
  • Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism*
  • Insect Proteins / genetics
  • Insect Proteins / metabolism
  • Insect Proteins / physiology*
  • LIM-Homeodomain Proteins
  • Mice
  • Mosaicism
  • Mutagenesis
  • Nuclear Proteins / genetics
  • Nuclear Proteins / metabolism
  • Nuclear Proteins / physiology*
  • Phenotype
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Wings, Animal


  • Chi protein, Drosophila
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Insect Proteins
  • LIM-Homeodomain Proteins
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • ap protein, Drosophila