The K-Cl cotransporter protein KCC1 is a membrane transport protein that mediates the coupled, electroneutral transport of K and Cl across plasma membranes. The precise cell type(s) in the kidney that express the K-Cl cotransporter have remained unknown. The aim of the present investigation was to define the distribution of KCC1 mRNA in the human kidney. We used in situ hybridization with a nonradioactive digoxigenin-labeled riboprobe. We identified abundant KCC1 mRNA expression in the epithelial cells throughout the distal and proximal renal tubular epithelium. The transporter was also expressed in glomerular mesangial cells and endothelial cells of the renal vessels. These findings suggest that the K-Cl cotransporter may have an important role in transepithelial K and Cl reabsorption.