1. The effect of a new type 2 selective somatostatin (SRIF) receptor antagonist (DC-41-33) on somatostatin-induced inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in conscious, chronic gastric fistula equipped rats was studied. 2. Infused intravenously, DC-41-33 dose-dependently inhibits SRIF-induced inhibition of pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion with an IC50 of 31.6+/-1.2 nmol kg(-1) versus 10 nmol kg(-1) SRIF and blocks the inhibitory effects of SRIF when simultaneously co-infused. Its effectiveness provides additional evidence that SRIF-inhibition of gastric acid release is a SRIF type 2 receptor-mediated process. 3. DC-41-33 is able to completely reverse the inhibitory effect of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptides, GIP and GIP-(1-30)NH2, and glucagon-like polypeptide, GLP-1(7-36)NH2, on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion thus confirming that they exert these effects through stimulation of endogenous SRIF release. 4. DC-41-33 only partially blocks potent amylin and adrenomedullin-induced inhibition of gastric acid secretion, therefore suggesting that somatostatin may not function as a primary mediator in the action of these peptides. 5. Our results indicate that DC-41-33, is a potent in vivo inhibitor of exogenous and endogenous SRIF in rats. It represents a new class of SRIF analogues which should eventually provide excellent tools for further evaluating the many physiological roles of SRIF and its five receptor subtypes.