We undertook this study to determine if growth hormone treatment of prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis could improve their height and weight. Nine prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis were treated with human recombinant growth hormone for one year. Results obtained during this year were compared to similar measurements made for each patient for the one year prior to the treatment year. Anthropometric data including: height, height velocity, weight, weight velocity and skin fold thickness were measured at three month intervals. Pulmonary function and skeletal muscle strength were measured at three month intervals. Glucose tolerance was evaluated by HbAlc and by fasting blood glucose and insulin levels every three months. Our results demonstrate that growth hormone treatment resulted in significant improvement in height velocity and height Z scores. Weight increased in all subjects, with a significant increase in weight velocity (year prior to treatment = 1.7+/-1.0 kg/yr, treatment year = 3.8+/-1.6 kg/yr; p=0.03). Measurements of skin fold thickness suggests that lean body mass improved with growth hormone treatment. Pulmonary function improved in all but two patients, whose pulmonary function remained the same and muscle strength improved in all subjects. These results suggest that growth hormone used in prepubertal children with cystic fibrosis can improve height and weight and may improve lean body mass.