Effects of hyperventilation and hypocapnic/normocapnic hypoxemia on renal function and lithium clearance in humans

Anesthesiology. 1998 Dec;89(6):1389-400. doi: 10.1097/00000542-199812000-00016.


Background: Using the renal clearance of lithium as an index of proximal tubular outflow, this study tested the hypothesis that acute hypocapnic hypoxemia decreases proximal tubular reabsorption to the same extent as hypocapnic normoxemia (hyperventilation) and that this response is blunted during normocapnic hypoxemia.

Methods: Eight persons were studied on five occasions: (1) during inhalation of 10% oxygen (hypocapnic hypoxemia), (2) during hyperventilation of room air leading to carbon dioxide values similar to those with hypocapnic hypoxemia, (3) during inhalation of 10% oxygen with the addition of carbon dioxide to produce normocapnia, (4) during normal breathing of room air through the same tight-fitting face mask as used on the other study days, and (5) during breathing of room air without the face mask.

Results: Hypocapnic and normocapnic hypoxemia and hyperventilation increased cardiac output, respiratory minute volume, and effective renal plasma flow. Glomerular filtration rate remained unchanged on all study days. Calculated proximal tubular reabsorption decreased during hypocapnic hypoxemia and hyperventilation but remained unchanged with normocapnic hypoxemia. Sodium clearance increased slightly during hypocapnic and normocapnic hypoxemia, hyperventilation, and normocapnic normoxemia with but not without the face mask.

Conclusions: The results indicate that (1) respiratory alkalosis with or without hypoxemia decreases proximal tubular reabsorption and that this effect, but not renal vasodilation or natriuresis, can be abolished by adding carbon dioxide to the hypoxic gas; (2) the increases in the effective renal plasma flow were caused by increased ventilation rather than by changes in arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide levels; and (3) the natriuresis may be secondary to increased renal perfusion, but application of a face mask also may increase sodium excretion.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Gas Analysis
  • Carbon Dioxide / blood
  • Hemodynamics / physiology
  • Hormones / blood
  • Humans
  • Hyperventilation / physiopathology*
  • Hypocapnia / complications
  • Hypocapnia / physiopathology*
  • Hypoxia / complications
  • Hypoxia / physiopathology*
  • Kidney / physiopathology*
  • Kidney Function Tests
  • Kidney Tubules, Proximal / metabolism
  • Kidney Tubules, Proximal / physiopathology
  • Lithium / pharmacokinetics*
  • Lithium / urine
  • Male
  • Respiratory Function Tests


  • Hormones
  • Carbon Dioxide
  • Lithium