The contribution of various foods to intake of vitamin A and carotenoids in The Netherlands

Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 1998;68(6):378-83.


This study presents data on dietary intake of specific carotenoids in the Netherlands, based on a recently developed food composition database for carotenoids. Regularly eaten vegetables, the main dietary source of carotenoids, were sampled comprehensively and analysed with modern analytic methods. The database was complemented with data from recent literature and information from food manufacturers. In addition, data on intake of vitamin A are presented, which are based on the most recent update of the Dutch Food Composition Table. Intake of vitamin A was calculated for adult participants of the second Dutch National Food Consumption Survey in 1992, whereas intake of carotenoids was calculated for participants of the Dutch Cohort Study on diet and cancer, aged 55 to 69 in 1986. Mean intake of vitamin A amounted to 1.1 and 0.9 mg RE/day for men and women, respectively; the contributions of meat, fats and oils, vegetables and dairy products to total intake were 35%, 24%, 16%, and 16%, respectively. Mean intake of alpha-carotene, beta-carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin was 0.7, 3.0, and 2.5 mg/day respectively for both men and women, while mean intake of lycopene was 1.0 mg/day for men and 1.3 mg/day for women. The most important foods contributing to intake of beta-carotene and lutein plus zeaxanthin were carrots (beta-carotene only), spinach, endive and kale.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Carotenoids / administration & dosage*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Diet*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated / administration & dosage
  • Female
  • Food*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Lutein / administration & dosage
  • Lycopene
  • Male
  • Meat
  • Middle Aged
  • Netherlands
  • Vegetables
  • Vitamin A / administration & dosage*
  • Xanthophylls
  • Zeaxanthins
  • beta Carotene / administration & dosage
  • beta Carotene / analogs & derivatives


  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
  • Xanthophylls
  • Zeaxanthins
  • beta Carotene
  • Vitamin A
  • Carotenoids
  • alpha-carotene
  • Lycopene
  • Lutein