Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a skeletal disorder of remarkable clinical variability characterized by bone fragility, osteopenia, variable degrees of short stature, and progressive skeletal deformities. Additional clinical manifestations such as blue sclerae, dentinogenesis imperfecta, joint laxity, and maturity onset deafness are described in the literature. OI occurs in about 1 in 20,000 births and is caused by quantitative and qualitative defects in the synthesis of collagen I. Depending on the severity of the disease, a large impact on motor development, range of joint motion, muscle strength, and functional ability may occur. Treatment strategies should primarily focus on the improvement of functional ability and the adoption of compensatory strategies, rather than merely improving range of joint motion and muscle strength. Surgical treatment of the extremities may be indicated to stabilize the long bones to optimize functional ability and walking capacity. Surgical treatment of the spine may be indicated in patients with progressive spinal deformity and in those with symptomatic basilar impression.