The impact of hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) on patient survival after kidney transplantation is controversial. The aims of this study were (1) to assess the independent prognostic values of HBsAg and anti-HCV in a large renal transplant population, (2) to compare infected patients with noninfected patients matched for factors possibly associated with graft and patient survival, and (3) to assess the prognostic value of biopsy-proven cirrhosis. Eight hundred thirty-four transplanted patients were included: 128 with positive HBsAg (group I), 216 with positive anti-HCV (group II), and 490 without serological markers of HBV and HCV (group III). Fifteen percent and 29% of patients were HBsAg-positive and anti-HCV-positive, respectively. Ten-year survivals of group I (55 +/- 6%) and group II (65 +/- 5%) were significantly lower than survival of group III (80 +/- 3%, P <.001). At 10 years, among overall patients with HCV screening (n = 834), four variables had independent prognostic values in patient survival: age at transplantation (P <.0001), year of transplantation (P =.02), biopsy-proven cirrhosis (P =.03), and presence of HCV antibodies (P =.02). In the case control study, comparison of infected patients with their matched control patients showed that age at transplantation (P <.05), HBsAg (P =.005), and anti-HCV (P =.005) were independent prognostic factors. HCV, biopsy-proven cirrhosis, and age are independent prognostic factors of 10-year survival in patients with kidney grafts. The case-control study showed that anti-HCV and HBsAg were independently associated with patient and graft survivals. In infected patients, a routine liver histological analysis would improve selection of patients for renal transplantation.