Isolated high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) has been shown to be a positive predictor of prostate cancer (PCa) on follow-up biopsy. However, the incidence of isolated high-grade PIN in needle biopsy specimens has been reported with a highly variable frequency of 1% to 15%. The current study examined the relationship of various pathological features with PCa on a single biopsy accession. A study population of 388 community-based consecutive needle biopsy accessions was prospectively recorded by a single pathologist (T.M.W.). All of the individual biopsy specimens were coded for the presence of PCa, high-grade PIN, low-grade PIN, chronic inflammation (CI), intraluminal prostatic crystalloids (IPC) in benign glands, and mucinous metaplasia (MM). One hundred twenty-nine (33%) of the patients were diagnosed with PCa. The 8% incidence of isolated high-grade PIN was consistent with previous studies. The incidence of other pathological features were as follows: high-grade PIN, 14%; low-grade PIN, 13%; CI, 30%; IPC, 4%; and MM, 8%. Of the patients with high-grade PIN, 47% had PCa on a separate core biopsy, whereas 31% of patients without high-grade PIN were observed to have PCa (P=.021). Of the patients with CI, 21% were found to have PCa on a separate core, whereas 38% of patients without CI were found to have PCa (P=.0009). None of the other pathological features surveyed showed any significant association with PCa. High-grade PIN was a relatively common finding (14%) in this study and was positively associated with PCa on a separate core from the same accession biopsy. The negative association of CP with PCa within the same accession has not been reported previously and may be an artifact related to the clinical indications for a prostatic biopsy.