The release profile of chlorhexidine from the PerioChip (Chip), a biodegradable local delivery system that contains 2.5 mg of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) in a cross-linked hydrolyzed gelatin matrix, into the gingival crevice, was evaluated in an in vivo, open label, single-center, 10-day pharmacokinetic study conducted on 19 volunteers with chronic adult periodontitis. Each volunteer had a single chip inserted into each of 4 selected pockets, with probing pocket depths of between 5-8 mm, at time 0. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) samples were collected using filter paper strips prior to Chip placement and at 2 h, 4 h, 24 h and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 days post-Chip placement. The GCF volume was measured using a calibrated Periotron 6000. Blood samples were collected at times 0, 1, 4, 8, 12 h and 5 days post-dosing. Urine was collected as a total 24-h specimen immediately post-dosing and 2 single samples at time 0, prior to dosing, and 5 days. The CHX was eluted from the paper strips and the CHX levels in GCF, blood and urine quantified using HPLC. The results indicate an initial peak concentration of CHX in the GCF at 2 h post-Chip insertion (2007 microg/ml) with slightly lower concentrations of between 1300-1900 microg/ml being maintained over the next 96 h. The CHX concentration then progressively decreased until study conclusion with significant CHX concentrations (mean=57 microg/ml) still being detectable at study termination. CHX was not detectable in any of the plasma or urine samples at any time point during the study. These results indicate that the PerioChip can maintain clinically effective levels of CHX in the GCF of periodontal pockets for over 1 week with no detectable systemic absorption.