The means of measurement of adenosine and deoxyadenosine in urine was developed by separating adenosine and deoxyadenosine from other compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography with column switchings. This method is simple and convenient since no pretreatment of the urine is needed. Using this method, it could be demonstrated that urinary adenosine was higher in an adenosine deaminase (ADA) deficient patient who had a bone marrow transplant treatment (1.97 micromol/mmol creatinine) and in a heterozygote who had a markedly low erythrocyte ADA activity (1% of control ADA activity) (1.33 micromol/mmol creatinine) as compared to normal subjects (0.22+/-0.09 micromol/mmol creatinine, n=11). It was also noted that urinary deoxyadenosine was below the detection limits in the ADA-deficient bone marrow transplant patient, but it was detected in the heterozygote (3.7 micromol/mmol creatinine). Furthermore, it was also demonstrated that a fructose infusion increased the urinary concentration of adenosine from 0.21+/-0.03 to 2.66+/-1.21 micromol/mmol creatinine in five normal subjects.