Consensus statement on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy. American Autonomic Society and American Academy of Neurology

Clin Auton Res. 1998 Dec;8(6):359-62. doi: 10.1007/BF02309628.


We report the results of a consensus conference on the diagnosis of multiple system atrophy (MSA). We describe the clinical features of the disease, which include four domains: autonomic failure/urinary dysfunction, parkinsonism and cerebellar ataxia, and corticospinal dysfunction. We set criteria to define the relative importance of these features. The diagnosis of possible MSA requires one criterion plus two features from separate domains. The diagnosis of probable MSA requires the criterion for autonomic failure/urinary dysfunction plus poor levodopa responsive parkinsonism or cerebellar ataxia. The diagnosis of definite MSA requires pathological confirmation.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference
  • Guideline
  • Practice Guideline
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic use
  • Autonomic Nervous System Diseases / diagnosis
  • Cerebellar Diseases / diagnosis
  • Clinical Laboratory Techniques
  • Humans
  • Levodopa / therapeutic use
  • Multiple System Atrophy / diagnosis*
  • Multiple System Atrophy / drug therapy
  • Multiple System Atrophy / physiopathology
  • Parkinson Disease / diagnosis
  • Parkinson Disease / drug therapy
  • Pyramidal Tracts / physiopathology
  • Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena


  • Antiparkinson Agents
  • Levodopa