Advanced glycation end products in age-related macular degeneration

Arch Ophthalmol. 1998 Dec;116(12):1629-32. doi: 10.1001/archopht.116.12.1629.


Objective: To investigate the localization of N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML), a component and major immunologic epitope of advanced glycation end products, in aged eyes and choroidal neovascular membranes (CNVMs) surgically excised from eyes with age-related macular degeneration.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry for CML was performed using 8 snap-frozen, surgically excised CNVMs. Twelve eyes from patients aged 69 to 82 years and 2 donor eyes, 1 each from a 23-week-old fetus and 21-year-old patient, without age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy were also examined. To determine if retinal pigment epithelial cells in CNVMs accumulate advanced glycation end products, cytokeratin and CML were stained in paired serial sections.

Results: Soft, macular drusen and/or basal laminar and basal linear deposits were observed in 8 of 12 aged eyes. Each case showed CML accumulation, while overlying retinal pigment epithelial cells showed no accumulation in all 12 eyes. In CNVMs, however, retinal pigment epithelial cells showed CML accumulation in their cytoplasm.

Conclusion: The additional accumulation of advanced glycation end products in soft, macular drusen and/or retinal pigment epithelial cells may play a role in the pathogenesis of CNVM formation in age-related macular degeneration.

Clinical relevance: Recently, advanced glycation end products have been found to play a role both in aging changes and neovascularization. Localization of advanced glycation end products in the above-mentioned tissue may lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / etiology
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / metabolism*
  • Choroidal Neovascularization / pathology
  • Glycation End Products, Advanced / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Immunoenzyme Techniques
  • Keratins / metabolism
  • Lysine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Lysine / metabolism
  • Macular Degeneration / complications
  • Macular Degeneration / metabolism*
  • Pigment Epithelium of Eye / metabolism


  • Glycation End Products, Advanced
  • Keratins
  • N(6)-carboxymethyllysine
  • Lysine