Problem: To determine whether granulocyte macrophage (GM)-colony stimulating factor (CSF) produced by autologous endometrial co-culture was associated with outcome in 53 patients with a history of multiple in vitro fertilization failures.
Method of study: The conditioned media from endometrial co-culture cells exposed or non-exposed to human embryos was analyzed for GM-CSF.
Results: Exposure or non-exposure to an embryo did not result in an enhancement of GM-CSF production. Insignificant levels of GM-CSF were determined from media alone. ROC analysis revealed that levels of GM-CSF from supernatants of endometrial co-culture exposed to embryos that measured below 130 pg/ml reflected a diminished prognosis (5/17 had a positive pregnancy vs. 21/36 with GM-CSF levels greater than 130 pg/ml; P < 0.05).
Conclusions: The improved outcome associated with GM-CSF values greater than 130 pg/ml may reflect: 1) a direct positive effect of GM-CSF; 2) an embryotrophic factor upregulated by GM-CSF; or, 3) that GM-CSF functions as a marker for the importance of the glandular component in endometrial co-culture systems.