Granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor production by autologous endometrial co-culture is associated with outcome for in vitro fertilization patients with a history of multiple implantation failures

Am J Reprod Immunol. 1998 Nov;40(5):377-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.1998.tb00069.x.


Problem: To determine whether granulocyte macrophage (GM)-colony stimulating factor (CSF) produced by autologous endometrial co-culture was associated with outcome in 53 patients with a history of multiple in vitro fertilization failures.

Method of study: The conditioned media from endometrial co-culture cells exposed or non-exposed to human embryos was analyzed for GM-CSF.

Results: Exposure or non-exposure to an embryo did not result in an enhancement of GM-CSF production. Insignificant levels of GM-CSF were determined from media alone. ROC analysis revealed that levels of GM-CSF from supernatants of endometrial co-culture exposed to embryos that measured below 130 pg/ml reflected a diminished prognosis (5/17 had a positive pregnancy vs. 21/36 with GM-CSF levels greater than 130 pg/ml; P < 0.05).

Conclusions: The improved outcome associated with GM-CSF values greater than 130 pg/ml may reflect: 1) a direct positive effect of GM-CSF; 2) an embryotrophic factor upregulated by GM-CSF; or, 3) that GM-CSF functions as a marker for the importance of the glandular component in endometrial co-culture systems.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Coculture Techniques
  • Embryo Implantation*
  • Embryo Transfer
  • Endometrium / cytology
  • Endometrium / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Fertilization in Vitro*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis*
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Ovulation Induction
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnancy Outcome
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor