The issue of whether mild head injuries (HIs) in children cause behavior problems and poor scholastic performance is controversial. This study included 119 children (range = 8-16 years old) with HI, 114 with other injuries, and 106 with no injury (NI). Behavioral functioning was assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist; academic functioning, with school grades and standardized testing. Higher T scores were found for both injury groups versus NI participants on preinjury behavioral status. All 3 groups' behavioral scores decreased relative to baseline at 1 year. HI and NI groups did not differ in school grades or achievement testing either pre- or postinjury. These results are consistent with the conclusion that head injury of the mildest type does not increase the probability of new overt behavioral or academic problems.