Effect on plasma lipids and lipoproteins of replacing partially hydrogenated fish oil with vegetable fat in margarine

Br J Nutr. 1998 Sep;80(3):243-51.


We have compared the effects on lipoproteins and haemostatic variables of two hard margarines with similar functional properties, one traditional margarine containing partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO), and one experimental margarine based on vegetable oil (VO). Both were all-purpose cooking margarines with nearly identical functional properties. Trans fatty acids from PHFO in the traditional margarine were replaced mostly by saturated, monounsaturated and trans fatty acids of vegetable origin in the new formulation. Both test margarines contained approximately the same amount of cis polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sixteen female normolipidaemic students consumed each diet with the two test margarines for 14 d in random order (crossover design). The amount of fat was 31% energy in the PHFO diet and 32% energy in the VO diet. The test margarines provided approximately 26% energy in both diets. In the PHFO diet 7.8% of the energy was derived from trans fatty acids and 9.2% from saturated fatty acids (12:0, 14:0 and 16:0) while in the VO diet, 1.1% energy was derived from trans fatty acids and 13.3% from saturated fatty acids (12:0, 14:0 and 16:0). The natural content of cholesterol in PHFO was deliberately not balanced by addition of cholesterol to the VO diet, thus the PHFO diet contained 215 mg and the VO diet 86 mg cholesterol per 8.5 MJ. LDL-cholesterol concentration was 19% higher in subjects on the PHFO diet compared with the VO diet (P < 0.01). The ratio LDL-cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol was 12.6% higher in subjects on the PHFO diet compared with the VO diet (P < 0.01). The level of apolipoprotein (apo)A-I was 6% lower in subjects on the PHFO diet compared with the VO diet (P < 0.01). The ratio apoB:apoA-I was 10.4% higher in subjects on the PHFO diet than on the VO diet (P < 0.01). There were no significant differences in total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, apoB, lipoprotein(a) and haemostatic variables between the diets. Our results demonstrate that PHFO, with its unfavourable effects on plasma lipids, can be replaced by vegetable oils in margarine without appreciable loss of functional properties but with significant improvement in the effects on plasma lipoproteins.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Apolipoprotein A-I / analysis
  • Apolipoproteins B / analysis
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Female
  • Fish Oils / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Lipids / blood*
  • Lipoprotein(a) / analysis
  • Margarine*
  • Plant Oils / administration & dosage*
  • Plasminogen Inactivators / analysis
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator / analysis
  • Triglycerides / analysis


  • Apolipoprotein A-I
  • Apolipoproteins B
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Fish Oils
  • Lipids
  • Lipoprotein(a)
  • Plant Oils
  • Plasminogen Inactivators
  • Triglycerides
  • Margarine
  • Cholesterol
  • Tissue Plasminogen Activator