Evaluation of antibody responses of emus (Dromaius novaehollandiae) to avian influenza virus infection

Avian Dis. 1998 Oct-Dec;42(4):757-61.


Emu antibody responses to avian influenza virus (AIV) infection were evaluated by the competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests. All birds infected with AIV H5N1, H5N3, or H7N7 developed antinucleoprotein (NP) antibodies as early as 7 days postinfection as detected by the C-ELISA. The responses lasted 49 days for the emus receiving H5N3 and at least 56 days for emus receiving the other two viruses. By evaluating 50 emu field serum samples, the C-ELISA was found more sensitive than the AGID test for the detection of anti-NP antibodies. This study indicates that emus experimentally infected with AIV developed antibody responses that can be detected by C-ELISA, AGID, and HI tests. The results from this and our previous studies demonstrate the use of the C-ELISA as a substitute for the AGID test in a routine serodiagnostic screening for detection of antibodies to AIV infection in multiple avian species.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Antibody Formation
  • Dromaiidae / immunology*
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Immunodiffusion
  • Influenza A virus / immunology*
  • Influenza Vaccines*
  • Influenza in Birds / immunology*
  • Influenza in Birds / prevention & control
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Time Factors


  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Influenza Vaccines